Microbiologie appliquée: libre accès
Libre accès

ISSN: 2471-9315


Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Chickens, Goats, Cattle and Pigs in Bvumbwe, Malawi

Martin H Kalumbi, Zefaniah J Katuah, Atusaye E Nyirenda, Blessings Katiniche, Robert Chinyama, Donita Moyo, Simon Thugo, Madalitso Mlozen, Chikondi Kamwendo, Elias Bonya, Adam M Nyanda, Jonathan Majamanda, Wilfred Taika, Patrick Chagwa, Linly Linje

Background: Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem worldwide affecting human and animal health. There is a potential that antibiotic resistant bacterial strains are passed on from animals to humans leading to more serious bacterial infections and burden.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistant bacterial profile in chickens, cattle, goats and pigs.

Methods: Prospective cross sectional laboratory based study was conducted on droppings, mouth, nose and hooves samples obtained from chickens, cattle, goats and pigs from Bvumbwe, Malawi. Gram stain and biochemical reactions were used to identify bacterial pathogens. Susceptibility of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics in Malawi was done using disk diffusion method under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

Results: In total, 110 animal samples were examined and all (100%) were found positive with at least one type of bacteria. Citrobacter, S. aureus, Bacillus, E. coli, Clostridium, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, other coliforms and Staphylococcus spp. were isolated. Bacillus spp. recorded the highest prevalence (77.3%), followed by Citrobacter spp. (41.6%) and S. aureus (39.1%). S. aureus and Citrobacter spp. demonstrated multidrug resistance to at least four antibiotics including Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin. Highest resistance of 41.7% was observed in S. aureus followed by Citrobacter species of 33.3%. Among the antibiotics tested, highest resistance was portrayed by Ampicillin (77.8%) and Tetracycline (66.7%).

Conclusion: This study highlighted that healthy farm animals such as chickens, cattle, goats and pigs harbour multidrug-resistant bacteria with high levels of Ampicillin and Tetracycline resistance. This will likely limit options for antibiotic therapy in animals and humans. Efforts are therefore needed to control the use, distribution, storage and sale of antibiotics in veterinaries.