Journal d'hématologie et des maladies thromboemboliques

Journal d'hématologie et des maladies thromboemboliques
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ISSN: 2329-8790


Acute Myeloid Leukemia among Patients at the National Oncology Center in Sana'a, Yemen: Prevalence, Subtypes and Hematological Features

Mohammed Abdulkader Al-Nuzaili, Khaled Saad Al-Khamesy, Osama Muzher Yahia

Background: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a malignant condition that affects the bone marrow's myeloid cell lineage. Genetic abnormalities result in an accumulation of myeloblasts in the BM and peripheral blood. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, subtypes, and hematological characteristics among AML patients at the National Oncology Center (NOC) in Sana'a.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 747 patients with hematological malignancies were investigated. There had been 275 females and 472 males, whose ages ranged from 1 to 75. During March 2020 and May 2022, the NOC in Sana'a, Yemen, provided the registered data. The NOC received these patients from a variety of Sana'a hospitals and clinics in addition to those from other governorates. These patients came to NOC to get an accurate diagnosis and suitable treatment. Giemsa-stained blood/BM films, the CBC, and immunophenotypic testing using flow cytometry were used to reach the final diagnosis of AML, if necessary. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 26 program.

Results: Of the 747 patients, 175 (23.4%) had been identified as having AML. It had 98 (56%) men and 77 (44%) women, whose ages ranged from 1 to 75. There were 543 (79.7%) patients with acute leukemia (ALL and AML) as well as 138 (20.3%) patients with chronic leukemia (CML and CLL). ALL, AML, CML, and CLL were the most common types of leukemia, with a prevalence rate of each of 49.30%, 23.43%, 11.65%, and 6.83% for all patients, respectively. FAB-M2 was observed in 48.57% of patients, followed by M5 (17.72%), M1 (15.43%), M3 (11.43%), M4 (5.71%), and the less common M0 (0.57%), M7 (0.57%), and M6 (0%). Hematological characteristics included decreased Hb, increased WBC, and decreased platelets in 96.6%, 81.7%, and 100% of patients, respectively. Age and Hb and WBC had strong positive relationships (p=0.009 and p=0.002, respectively), as did Hb and WBC (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Leukemia was the most common type of hematological malignancy. AML accounts for about 25% of all cases of leukemia. Half of the AML patients had the most frequent FAB subtype, AML-M2.